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Genrations Of Computers


Generations of Computer

There are mainly 5 generations of computers:
        
   1.First Generation:- This generation is from1946-1959.  
First Generation
           J.P.Eckert and J.W.Mauchy invented the first successful electronic computer called ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrated and Calculator). 
       This generation computers are made up by the use of vacuum tubes, and these computers are not much faster as today’s computers they calculate in milliseconds. 
     These computers needs a large cooling system because they have vacuum tubes. They have less work efficiency
     These systems are not reliable and they need constant maintenance. The 1st generations computers are very large in size and they are heavy in weights about 30 tons. 
  1. These computers are comes very costly in that time. These computers are have small storage capacitybecause in 1st generation there is magnetic drums are used to store the data and information. In this generations computers they have limited programming capabilities, and they have used punch cards to take input.

 2.Second Generation: - 1959-1965 is the period of second-generation computer.
Second Genration

 Some name of 2nd generation computers are :-
Honeywell 400
IBM 7094
CDC 1604
 CDC 3600
UNIVAC 1108. 
This generations of computer based on transistors. 
The size of electron component decreased this resulted in reducing the size of a computer as compared to first generation computers. 
This generations computers consumed less energy and reduced less heat as compare to 1st generation computers. In this system the assembly languages are used. This computer is faster than 1st generation it calculates in microseconds. 
The disadvantages of this generation it also need a cooling system and constant maintenance and this system is used for only specific use. 



3. Third Generation: - 1965-1971 is the period of third generation computer.
Third Genration

T     These computer are based on integrated circuits(IC). 
       IC was invented by Robert Noyce and Jack Kelby In 1958-1959. 
      IC is a single component which has many transistors due to use of IC the Size of 3rd generation computer are reduced as compared 1st and 3rd generations. 
      These are the name of 3rd generation computers:
PDP-8
PDP-11
ICL 2900
IBM 360
IBM 370
      
These computers are cheaper as compared to 1st and 3rd generations. These computers are faster and reliable. 
The use of IC not only reduced size of computer but it also improve the performance and speed of computer. These computers are calculated in nanoseconds. 
This generation computers has a large storage capacity. In this generation of computers we used mouse and keyboard for inputs instead of punch cards.
In this generation computers they uses operating system for a better resource management and a concept of time sharing and multiple programming.
The disadvantages of this computer are IC are difficult to maintain. 
The highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips. For cooling system it uses Air Conditioner (AC).

4.     4. Fourth Generation: - 1971-1980 is the period of fourth generation computer. 
Fourth Generation

     In this generation of computer microprocessor is used instead of Integrated circuit (IC). 
    This generation is based on LSI (Large Scale Integration) , this generations computers a much portable and not bigger in size. 
    The work of a microprocessor in a computer system is to solve logical and arithmetical problems. Graphics User Interface (GUI) technology was exploited to offer more comfort to users. 
    Some names of 4th Generation computers are:-
IBM 4341
DEC 10
STAR 1000
PUP 11



Fastest in computation and size get reduced as compared to the previous generation of computer.
 In this generations computer no need of a cooling system and does not need constant maintenance.
 All the high level languages are used in this computers. 
The disadvantages are the Microprocessor design and fabrication are very complex advance technology is required to make the ICs.

5 5. Fifth Generation: - The period of the fifth generation in 1980-onwards. 
Fifth Generation

     This generation computers are based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). Some names of 5th generation computers are:
Desktop
Laptop
Notebook
Ultrabook
Chromebook
         
The main purpose of the fifth generation is to make the devices to respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-response. 
This generation is based on ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology the calculations of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic component.
The main advantages of 5th generation computers are they are reliable and works faster. These computers are available in different sizes & unique features. It provides computers with more user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features.
The disadvantages of this generation computers are they need very low level languages and they may make the human brains dull and doomed.



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